The range of the species is from British Columbia, Canada to Baja California, Mexico, and possibly also other areas of the Pacific. Overview; Gallery; Names; Classification; Records; Literature; Sequences; Data Partners + Online Resources. [2][3], Electric rays are found from shallow coastal waters down to at least 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. It has a wide distribution, being found in warm and temperate waters off the coasts of North and South America, around Africa and throughout the Mediterranean. They lie in wait for prey below the sand or other substrate, using their electricity to stun and capture it. This type of stingray is commonly found in the tropical and subtropical waters of … The electric rays are cartilaginous fishes comprising the order Torpediniformes. Unlike other rays, electric rays use their tails to swim, not their pectoral fins. A species similar in appearance to the marbled electric ray is the Atlantic torpedo (T. nobiliana), however the two species are easy to distinguish from each other by their coloration. Like sharks, rays have skeletons made of flexible cartilage instead of bone. The ancient Greeks used electric rays to numb the pain of childbirth and operations. In this way, it differs from Electrophorus which produces high-voltage discharges owing to numerous electrocytes arranged in series. Reproduction is dioecious. They are found worldwide in warm and temperate waters. Equipped with electric organs, this ray is an advanced ambush predator whose mottled skin color renders it nearly invisible to unsuspecting eyes. 4 Electric Ray. Scientific name: Torpedo marmorata; Size: Up to 4ft in length and 15lbs. Noam Kortler. The torpedinids feed on large prey, which are stunned using their electric organs and swallowed whole, while the narcinids specialize on small prey on or in the bottom substrate. Depending on the species, these fish can discharge currents anywhere between 8 and 220 volts! When the Electric Ray moves, the storm follows at unnatural speed. Caribbean electric rays, like all electric rays, have the ability to produce an electrical charge to deter predators or stun prey! For the fictional energy weapon, see. [6] The torpedo fish, or electric ray, appears continuously in premodern natural histories as a magical creature, and its ability to numb fishermen without seeming to touch them was a significant source of evidence for the belief in occult qualities in nature during the ages before the discovery of electricity as an explanatory mode.[7]. From Ocean Leadership. image: Wikimedia Commons. The electric ray (Torpedo species) has many shorter columns with 1,000 electrocytes per column, since the ray prioritizes increasing the current over voltage. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. Despite being cartilaginous, Rays have incredibly strong jaws. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Lesser electric ray – Cozumel: Thorny stingray – Indonesia: Eagle ray – Galápagos: Javanese cow-nose ray: Black-blotched ray, Maldives: Southern stingray – Belize : Stingrays are not regarded as a threatened species. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Wikipedia OneZoom Tree of Life Encyclopedia of Life. The Electric Ray is a huge torpedo ray that used to sleep in Catumbo Bay. When an electrocyte is stimulated, a movement of ions (electrically charged atoms) across the cell membrane results in an electric discharge. There are numerous species of electric ray; most inhabit shallow water, but some (Benthobatis) live at depths of 1,000 m (3,300 feet) and more. Add Your Idea. It's electrical attraction is so immense that a never ending storm is contantly above it. They are a dimorphic species with females being larger than males and reach a maximum length of 1.07 m (3 feet 6 inches) compared to the … Rays are ovoviviparous. The name comes from the Latin torpere, to be stiffened or paralyzed, referring to the effect on someone who handles or steps on a living electric ray. The presence of electric organs require a good conducting medium; it is thus not surprising to find such adaptations only among aqueous organisms. This is how they hunt and defend themselves against predators in the oceans that they dwell in. Electric rays have a rounded pectoral disc with two moderately large rounded-angular (not pointed or hooked) dorsal fins (reduced in some Narcinidae), and a stout muscular tail with a well-developed caudal fin. They are known for being capable of producing an electric discharge, ranging from 8 to 220 volts, depending on species, used to stun prey and for defense. The ray can reach a total length of 140 cm and a weight of 41 kg. The electric currents produced by some species of fishes, such as the Numbfish and torpedo rays are generated in cells called electrocytes. The 60 or so species of electric rays are grouped into 12 genera and two families. Slow-moving bottom dwellers, electric rays feed on fishes and invertebrates. Coloration The dorsal surface of the lesser electric ray varies in color from dark brown to light brown or reddish orange with irregular rings or ovals. The marine electric ray (genus Torpedo and various species: marmorata, californica, nobilianae, occidentalis) can produce high-amperage electrical discharges by virtue of numerous electrocyte columns arranged in parallel, as discussed briefly earlier. The Pacific electric ray (Torpedo californica) is a species of electric ray native to the eastern Pacific Ocean. The marbled electric ray (Torpedo marmorata) is a species of electric ray in the family Torpedinidae found in the coastal waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean from the North Sea to South Africa. UK minimum size: N/a; UK shore caught record: 13lbs 15oz; ICUN Status: DD (Data Deficient) Distribution: Southern North Sea and isolated Scottish waters. They are nocturnal, lying buried in the sand during the day. Electric ray fish in ocean. Collected by: Collect This. They can produce an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins.They are the order Torpediniformes.. This species is uniquely characterized by females reaching maturity at just two years old which is unusually young for any shark or ray species! The mouth, nostrils, and five pairs of gill slits are underneath the disc. Its eyes glow amber when awake and don't glow when sleeping, much like a battery. Electric rays, or New Zealand torpedoes, stun their prey with an electric shock. [5] Scribonius Largus, a Roman physician, recorded the use of torpedo fish for treatment of headaches and gout in his Compositiones Medicae of 46 AD. [2] In his dialogue Meno, Plato has the character Meno accuse Socrates of "stunning" people with his puzzling questions, in a manner similar to the way the torpedo fish stuns with electricity. [4], The electrogenic properties of electric rays have been known since antiquity. JSON; GBIF; Encyclopaedia of Life ; Biodiversity Heritage Library; PESI [counting] records This map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions. The rays are found in kelp forests and on sandy bottoms, sometimes partially buried in the sand. The Caribbean electric ray is a coastal species found in the western Atlantic and Caribbean coasts. electric ray Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Chondrichthyes Order Torpediniformes Family Torpedinidae Genus Species Multiple. Electric ray fish in ocean. AskNature Team. There are 69 species in four subfamilies. Electric ray, also called torpedo, torpedo fish, numbfish, or crampfish, any of the rays of the families Torpedinidae, Narkidae, Narcinidae, and Hypnidae, named for their ability to produce electrical shocks. The English language common names for this species are lesser electric ray, Brazilian electric ray, small electric ray, spotted torpedo ray, torpedofish, trembler and the electric ray. Estimated at 50 volts in some rays, the charge is enough to make an adult human collapse. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins.They are the order Torpediniformes.. The marbled electric ray, also known as the marbled torpedo ray, is one of many ray species that will literally leave prey in shock. Rays are ovoviviparous. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Perhaps the best known members are those of the genus Torpedo, also called crampfish and numbfish. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. The ancient Greeks and Romans used the electric shock of, The torpedo, or electric ray, and the electric eel have especially powerful electric organs, which they apparently use to immobilize or kill prey. Contributed by AskNature Team. [8] The Narkinae are sometimes elevated to a family, the Narkidae. It generally inhabits sandy flats, rocky reefs, and kelp forests from the surface to a depth of 200 m (660 ft), but has also been known to make forays into the open ocean. When an electrocyte is stimulated, a movement of ions (electrically charged atoms) across the cell membrane results in an electric discharge. (2011). This means that embryos develop inside eggs and remain inside their mother’s body until they are ready for live birth. Electric shocks emitted reach 220 volts and are strong enough to fell a human adult. Omissions? My spear would have been a fine conductor if the fish and I had connected.” Clark nearly zapped herself with an electric ray. Marbled Electric Ray. There is another species of electric ray in UK waters – the marbled electric ray. Electric rays are usually 1 to 6 feet in diameter and have a more rounded shape than other rays. [9], This article is about the fish. Anyone who dives will probably already know that rays are related to sharks – although they look nothing like them – and that rays drop loosely into two groups, those that sting in some way (electric and sting rays) and those that don't, such as mobula and manta rays. The electric rays, or numbfish, have little commercial value. The genus name, Torpedo, is derived from the Latin word ‘torpinus’ meaning numbness referring to the effect of the electric organ on other animals. The Caribbean electric ray is a coastal species found in the western Atlantic and Caribbean coasts. The Caribbean Electric Ray (Narcine bancroftii) is a species of concern belonging in the species group "fishes" and found in the following area(s): Brazil, Florida, French Guiana, Guyana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Suriname, Venezuela. Updates? They are the order Torpediniformes. Electric ray, also called torpedo, torpedo fish, numbfish, or crampfish, any of the rays of the families Torpedinidae, Narkidae, Narcinidae, and Hypnidae, named for their ability to produce electrical shocks. Round disc with a thick tail and well developed dorsal fins and caudal fin. There are 71 species of Torpediniformes, in 14 genera and 5 family. They can produce an electric discharge, ranging from as little as 8 volts up to 220 volts depending on species. These fish use electricity to zap predators and catch prey. It's Electric . Idea Incubator 1. The electric currents produced by some species of fishes, such as the Numbfish and torpedo rays are generated in cells called electrocytes. The marine electric ray (genus Torpedo and various species: marmorata, californica, nobilianae, occidentalis) can produce high-amperage electrical discharges by virtue of numerous electrocyte columns arranged in parallel, as discussed briefly earlier. The species was first described as Torpedo californica by Ayres in 1855, but was later placed in the genus Tetronarce by Gill in 1861. Many species of rays and skates outside the family have electric organs in the tail; however, the electric ray has two large electric organs on each side of its head, where current passes from the lower to the upper surface of the body. They are sluggish and slow-moving, propelling themselves with their tails, not by using their pectoral fins as other rays do. Feeds on: Small fish and occasional crustaceans. This group has been around since the Eocene Epoch. This benthic fish inhabits rocky reefs, seagrass beds, and sandy and muddy flats in shallow to moderately deep waters. The super cool thing about these bioelectrogenetic animals that they can control the intensity of their electric shocks. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins. Pacific Electric Ray, Tetronarce californica The Pacific Electric Ray, Tetronarce californica, whose common Spanish name is torpedo del Pacifico, is a species in the Torpedo Electric Ray or Torpedinidae Family, known collectively as torpedos in Mexico.This fish has historically been known as Torpedo californica but was recently reclassified into the new genus Tetronarce. Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. Compagno, Leonard J.V. LESSER ELECTRIC RAY Narcine bancroftii Identification Grayish to reddish brown, with many rounded dark blotches that are outlined with blackish circles on the dorsal disc. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/animal/electric-ray, Florida Museum of Natural History - Electric Ray. About 20 species are known to inhabit warm seas, with some reaching a weight of 200 pounds (90 kg). The marbled electric ray was originally described as Torpedo marmorata by Risso in 1810. Weight Atlantic torpedo ray may reach 90 kg (200 lbs.) The Electric Ray is a huge torpedo ray that used to sleep in Catumbo Bay. Before we get to the types of Rays, let’s take a look at several features that make them stand out in the fish world. These rays can actually control the intensity of their electric shocks, sending out relatively low doses to serve as a warning to curious predators and high doses to stun their lunch. Electric signals are produced by several other species of … Equipped with electric organs, this ray is an advanced ambush predator whose mottled skin color renders it nearly invisible to unsuspecting eyes. No spine on tail. The Giant Electric Ray is a demersal species found intertidally over sandy and rubble terrain at depths up to 100 m (330 feet). The largest species of electric ray, called the Atlantic torpedo ray, can reach over 6 ft (1.8 m) long while the smallest electric ray only grows to around a foot (.3 m). Pacific Electric Ray Torpedo Species. Disc white ventrally. Electric rays belong to the superorder Batoidea, which includes stingrays, skates, guitarfishes, and sawfishes. Disc white ventrally. Electric rays are found at many depths, from shallow waters to as far as 3,000 feet below the surface. 6. Torpediniformes includes groups like Narkidae, Pyörösähkörauskut, and Platyrhinidae. Ray Species; Electric Rays: Lesser Electric Ray; Electric Rays: Lesser Electric Ray. Biologists have identified at least 52 species of electric ray around the world, classified in four different … They are a dimorphic species with females being larger than males and reach a maximum length of 1.07 m (3 feet 6 inches) compared to the maximum length of 67 cm (26 inches) for males. The largest species of electric ray, called the Atlantic torpedo ray, can reach over 6 ft (1.8 m) long while the smallest electric ray only grows to around a foot (.3 m). Their eyes are on the top of their heads, resulting in poor vision[citation needed] that must be compensated for the use of other senses, including detecting electricity. In marine fish, these batteries are connected as a parallel circuit where freshwater batteries are found in series, transmitting discharges of higher voltage, as freshwater cannot conduct electricity as well as saltwater. The electric rays appear to fall into two suborders, the first composed of the torpedo rays (Torpedinidae) and the Short-tailed Electric Ray (Hypnidae — represented by a single species, Hypnos subnigrum, endemic to Australia), the other composed of the electric rays (Narcinidae) and the shortnose electric … The electric ray is one of those creatures that might have simultaneously fascinated and frightened you as a child. It was a ray all right—an electric ray! The electric ray may be the most electrosensitive of all animals. The rays are capable of producing electric discharges ranging from 8 to 220 volts. The main nerves branch repeatedly, then attach to the lower side of each plate in the batteries, which are composed of hexagonal columns, in honeycomb formation: each column consists of 140 to half a million gelatinous plates. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. Torpediniformes (Electric Rays) is a group of vertebrates. This shock can vary between 8 volts and 220 volts, depending on the species. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Estimated at 50 volts in some rays, the charge is enough to make an adult human collapse. The snout is broad, large in the Narcinidae, but reduced in all other families. They are soft and smooth-skinned, with a circular or nearly circular body disk formed by the head and pectoral fins. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes. Despite many people seeing this species as exotic it is found in British waters to the south and the west of the British Isles with the western English Channel, Celtic sea and waters off the c… The electric organs, composed of modified muscle tissue, are in the disk, one on each side of the head. The shock from these organs is used in defense, sensory location, and capturing prey. Common name: Lesser Electric Ray Species Codes for Trip Ticket Reporting: Marine Life Code: 697 - Ray, lesser electric Food and Bait Code: 184 - Rays (skates) License and Endorsements Required for Commercial Harvest: SPL - Saltwater Products License How do electric eels shock? Synonyms referring to this species in past scientific literature include Torpedo immaculata Rafinesque 1810, Torpedo punctata Rafinesque 1810, Torpedo galvani Risso 1810, Torpedo vulgaris Fleming 1828, Torpedo diversicolor Davy 1834,Torpedo picta Lowe 1843, and Torped… The powerful electric organs derive from branchial muscles. While there are around twenty ray species which are capable of giving an electric shock Torpedo nobiliana is the largest and the most powerful. Meet the electric ray This fascinating rays prefers shallow waters from 10 to 30 m, although rarely found deeper than 200 m. It inhabits buddy bottom, seagrass beds, rocky reefs and sandy flats. [2] There are 69 species in four families. One of the most common species of rays in our area which is also the cause of most human injuries is the Atlantic stingray. With such a battery, an average electric ray may electrocute larger prey with a current of up to 30 amperes and a voltage of 50 to 200 volts, a similar effect to dropping a mains-powered hairdryer (large appliance plug of 110/220 volts in North America) into a bathtub. The marbled electric ray, also known as the marbled torpedo ray, is one of many ray species that will literally leave prey in shock. Improved conduction and distribution of electricity. They are found in waters around the world, and have been around since ancient times. They feed on invertebrates and small fish. Electric rays range in length from under 30 cm (1 foot) to about 2 m (6 feet). LESSER ELECTRIC RAYNarcine bancroftii. There are 69 species in four subfamilies.. They are nocturnal, lying buried in the sand during the day. They are found worldwide in warm and temperate waters. Young is already born with the ability to give off electric charges. Both groups use electricity for defense, but it is unclear whether the narcinids use electricity in feeding. Round disc with a thick tail and well developed dorsal fins and caudal fin. Southern Stingray. 2. They have rounded dorsal fins and thick tails. The body is thick and flabby, with soft loose skin with no dermal denticles or thorns. The animal was ultimately returned to its previous genus and is currently known as Torpedo californica. They can crush hard-shelled prey with a single bite! This species is uniquely characterized by females reaching maturity at just two years old which is unusually young for any shark or ray species! The electric rays are cartilaginous fishes comprising the order Torpediniformes. If they are discovered, however, Rays won’t hesitate to use their venomous tai… 1. and Heemstra, Phillip C. (May 2007) ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Electrolux addisoni, a new genus and species of electric ray from the east coast of South Africa (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei: Narkidae), with a review of torpedinoid taxonomy, Myliobatiformes (stingrays and relatives), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electric_ray&oldid=988803252, Articles needing additional references from August 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 09:55. Grayish to reddish brown, with many rounded dark blotches that are outlined with blackish circles on the dorsal disc. There are 69 species in four subfamilies.. The organs are governed by four central nerves from each side of the electric lobe, or specialized brain lobe, which is of a different color from the rest of the brain. The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins.They are the order Torpediniformes.. The electric ray (Torpedo species) has many shorter columns with 1,000 electrocytes per column, since the ray prioritizes increasing the current over voltage. In the United States, one common type is the Pacific electric ray, found off the California coast. One of the newly discovered species is this electric ray, known by the Latin name Tetronarce cowleyi. Electric Rays boast a round pectoral disc, and two round dorsal fins. A ray is a fish that belongs to the same group as sharks (together they are known as elasmobranchs.) Electric fish can either emit an electric organ discharge (EOD), in pulses, or in a wave-like (sinusoidal) manner. Electric rays (order Torpediniformes) are fish that have rounded bodes and a pair of organs capable of producing an electric discharge. Measuring up to 1.4 m (4.6 ft) long, this species has smooth-rimmed spiracles (paired respiratoryopenings behind the eyes) and a dark … One of about 14 electric ray species in the world, Torpedo fairchildi, pictured here, is found only in New Zealand. Electric fish can either emit an electric organ discharge (EOD), in pulses, or in a wave-like (sinusoidal) manner. The Giant Electric Ray is a demersal species found intertidally over sandy and rubble terrain at depths up to 100 m (330 feet). Marbled Electric Ray species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native.