The two North American species, Southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides), and Northern Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) have been widely planted outside their natural ranges as ornamental trees for their showy flowers and attractive shape, or growing habit. Catalpa also has several medicinal uses. Ovules numerous. It is widely planted as an ornamental shade tree because it produces sprays of showy, purple-flecked white, tubular flowers. Leaf spots are rarely serious so no chemical control is suggested. Outer scales fall when spring growth begins, inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot, become green, hairy and sometimes two inches long. Catalpa bignonioides (Southern Catalpa) is somewhat smaller reaching about 30 to 40 feet tall, leaves are arranged opposite or in whorls (speciosa leaves are opposite), and it is native and has some salt tolerance. Finally, fibers from the fruit of the plant can be used to make ropes. It is two-lipped and the lips are lobed, two lobes above and three below, as is not uncommon with such corollas. The bean pods look like big cigars, which gives this plant another common name. A unique feature of the Catalpa trees … Louisville Plants That Are Most Easily Confused With This One: Royal Paulownia, Tulip Poplar  dr. In the northern states of the USA, it is a late bloomer, putting forth great panicles of white flowers in June or early in July when the flowers of other trees have mostly faded. They come out of the bud involute, purplish, when full grown are bright green, smooth above, pale green, and downy beneath. Yields bean-like seed pods that are 8–20" long and ¼–½" wide, starting out green and turning brownish as they ripen. The fruit is a long, thin bean pod like capsule 20–40 cm long and 8–10 mm diameter; it often stays attached to tree during winter. The hybrid is sterile and at least two crosses exist, 'White Cloud' and 'Pink Dawn'. Winter reveals its arching, twisted branches. Catalpa bignonioides is a species of Catalpa that is native to the southeastern United States in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The capsule contains numerous flat light brown seeds with two papery wings. Attractive, large panicles of white bell-shaped flowers with yellow and purple spots bloom in early summer and are long-lasting. [3], It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–18 metres (49–59 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) diameter, with brown to gray bark, maturing into hard plates or ridges. It is easily raised from seeds which germinate early in the first season. Catalpa speciosa (Northern Catalpa) grows in a loose oval, 60 feet tall in most urban locations, but occasionally grows to 90 feet. It also has larger leaves and its flowers open about two weeks earlier than those of southern catalpa. The genus was common in Europe during the Tertiary period and its fossil remains have been discovered in the Miocene rocks of the Yellowstone River. The nectar in turn attracted a greater number of bodyguard ants Forelius pruinosus to the damaged leaves, thus giving added protection to the whole plant. Southern Catalpa has many interesting features and uses. The catalpa trees have bloomed recently in Christian County, Kentucky. The Catawba worm strives on the tree; these worms are great for fish bait. There are two species of catalpa: southern and northern. Catalpa trees have a large crown that is rounded and upright with heart shape medium flowers. They can grow upwards of 70 feet in height, although more realistically, they typically grow to be around 50 feet. Native to floodplains, southern catalpa is very adaptable and tolerant of adverse conditions. Fall color of both species is a mid range yellow and is good during most years. Features distinctively large leaves that are up to 12" in length and 4–8" wide, with a somewhat heart or spear shape. They are filled with numerous, 1" long seeds that are fringed at the ends. And the strong wood is used for fence posts and making furniture. It is one of two parents of the interspecific hybrid tree × Chitalpa tashkentensis. When severe, the leaves yellow and fall off. A symptom of all is brown spots on the leaves. The wood is brittle and hard, but does not rot easily; it is used for fence posts and railroad ties. They turn dark and fall after the first severe frost. Fruit: Long slender capsule, nearly cylindrical, two-celled, partition at right angles to the valves. When bruised they give a disagreeable odor. For one thing, it's strong, extensive root system can prevent soil erosion. Perfect, white, borne in many-flowered thyrsoid panicles, eight to ten inches long. The leaves turn blackish before falling off the tree in autumn. Defoliated catalpas produce new leaves readily, but with multiple generations occurring, new foliage may be consumed by subsequent broods. Clusters of dark glands, which secrete nectar are found in the axils of the primary veins. It has large, heart-shaped leaves and large clusters of fragrant, white flowers. The simple, heart-shaped leaves are opposite or whorled, 8" to 12" long, short-pointed and softly pubescent beneath. Powdery mildew causes a white powdery coating on the leaves. [9] These caterpillars have a longstanding ecological relationship with the tree, and may defoliate a tree three or more times in a summer without killing it. The flowers grow in clusters and have red and yellow stripes. Nana, or umbrella catalpa (usually sold as Catalpa bungei. They secrete nectar, a most unusual characteristic for leaves, by means of groups of tiny glands in the axils of the primary veins. Because of the shape of the leaves, the Southern Catalpa was used for heart illnesses by Native American medicine men. This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 19:58. Calyx: Globular and pointed in the bud; finally splitting into two, broadly ovate, entire lobes, green or light purple. The long, interesting seed pods persist through the winter. Catalpa is a Midwest native tree grows 40 to 60 feet tall, with a narrow, open, irregularly rounded crown and spreading branches. Tree is rather weak wooded and messy. Common names include southern catalpa, cigartree, and Indian-bean-tree (or Indian bean tree). Catalpa Tree - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Their size makes them a prominent feature, as those on a northern catalpa can be a foot in length and as wide as 8 inches; the southern catalpa leaves are slightly smaller. Because the caterpillars are an excellent live bait for fishing, some dedicated anglers plant cat… Southern Catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides) A very showy tree with large creamy flowers and cordate leaves. Phonetic Spelling kah-TAL-pah big-non-ee-OY-deez Description. [citation needed], It is widely grown as an ornamental tree. The leaves grow three at each node on the twig in a whorled pattern and are a dull shade of green above with a hairy pale underside. Thank you for visiting these Catalpa Tree Pictures at Tree-Pictures.com, please come back soon for more great tree pictures! The Catalpa Tree consists of many species, two are native to the US. The medium sized, flowering deciduous tree Catalpa bignonioides is a relatively easily grown shade tree that prefers moderate soils but is tolerant of both wet and dry conditions.It prefers being grown in full sun to part shade and has an irregular shape once grown. The Chinese catalpa is a little squatter than the southern catalpa, growing to 20-30 feet. Southern catalpa is a short-trunked tree with a rounded to irregular form that can reach 30 to 40 feet in height. Catalpa bignonioides contains varying levels of iridoid glycosides that deter generalist herbivores, but which are tolerated by and concentrated in Ceratomia catalpae caterpillars. In the winter, the Southern Catalpa develops many large seedpods. C. bignonioides 'Purpurea', has also achieved the award[7] (confirmed 2017). [5] This is an example of a tree exhibiting a symbiotic relationship with nearby insects. Northern catalpa is more widely planted than the southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides). The other parent is Chilopsis linearis. The tree is the sole source of food for the catalpa sphinx moth (Ceratomia catalpae), the leaves being eaten by the caterpillars. It is a fast growing tree which prefers moist, well drained, alkaline soil, but can tolerate a range of soil types (this is why it could be, to some, considered a weedy plant). Catalpa is also known to be a mild narcotic, which is used in curing the “whooping cough. Catalpa bignonioides is a species of Catalpa that is native to the southeastern United States in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The tree has dense foliage in summer and porous foliage in winter. It is smaller than its northern cousin with the same large heart shaped leaves. The catalpa has the distinction of bearing some of the showiest flowers of all the American native trees. More About this Tree The large leaves make for a great shade tree. Six to twenty inches long, brown; hangs on the tree all winter, splitting before it falls. It is closely related to the Northern Catalpa (C. speciosa), and can be distinguished by the flowering panicles, which bear a larger number of smaller flowers, and the slightly slenderer seed capsules. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 18 m (59 ft) high. It was a special tree in china because its wood was used to make the bottom of the qin, a traditional Chinese instrument. The northern catalpa is sometimes called a hardy catalpa. Europeans first observed the tree growing in the fields of the Cherokee Native American tribes, who called it Catalpa. The entire Pink family behave in this way.[4]. In the USA, Catalpa bignonioides is undoubtedly a Southern tree. It also multiplies readily from cuttings. Unique Morphological Features of Plant: Long bean pods and heart shaped leaves, Pestiness (weedy, hard to control): Somewhat. After the flowers bloom, long, cylindrical pods filled with small winged seeds form. Downsides to landscaping with this tree is that it can be considered invasive in some circumstances, and it litters the lawn with flowers in the spring, leaves in the fall and seed pods in the winter. [4], The flowers are 2.5–4 cm across, trumpet shaped, white with yellow spots inside; they grow in panicles of 20-40. The catalpa tree is an ornamental shade tree that produces dense clusters of white flowers and long seed pods. Catalpa worms are the fish-bait of choice for many anglers here in the south. Common names include southern catalpa, cigartree, and Indian-bean-tree[2] (or Indian bean tree). Catalpa, Southern Common Name: Southern Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides Tree Size: Large Leaf Type: Deciduous Comments: Tough tree for open areas away from walkways; catalpa worms are a prized fish bait. The short thick trunk supports long and straggling branches which form a broad and irregular head. It was introduced as an ornamental tree because of its large, showy flowers. Southern catalpa is also known as "cigar tree" for its sausage-shaped, cylindrical fruits. Seeds an inch long, one-fourth of an inch wide, silvery gray, winged on each side and ends of wings fringed. Sterile filaments three, inserted near base of corolla, often rudimentary. Flowers in spring are quite showy. Family Name (Scientific and Common): Bignoniaceae, Continent of Origin: Northeastern United States, Manner of Culture: Landscape Shrub-Vine-Tree, Stem (or Trunk) Diameter: More Than The Diameter of a Coffee-Mug, Characteristics of Mature (Brownish) Bark: Lines Go Up-Down, Length of Leaf (or Leaflet): Longer Than a Writing Pen, Leaf Arrangement: Whorled (3 or more leaves per node), Patterns of Main-Veins on Leaf (or Leaflet): Pinnate, Leaf Hairiness: Somewhat Hairy (underneath), Change in Color of Foliage in October: Changes to Yellow, Shape of Individual Flower: Radial Symmetry, Size of Individual Flower: Between a Quarter and the Length of a Credit Card, Size of Fruit: Larger than the Length of a Credit Card, Fruit Desirable to Birds or Squirrels: No, Common Name(s): Northern Catalpa, Hardy Catalpa, Western Catalpa, Cigar Tree, and Catawba-Tree. Pistil: Ovary superior, two-celled; style long, thread-like, with a two-lipped stigma. Catalpa is susceptible to verticillium wilt. Branches die and eventually the entire tree … A 2003 study by J. Ness showed that when a hawkmoth caterpillar Ceratomia catalpae started eating the leaves of C. bignonoides, the leaves produced extra nectar. Finally, fibers from the fruit of the plant can be used to make ropes. The large white catalpa flowers are produced in erect, terminal clusters in … The general effect of the flower cluster is a pure white, but the individual corolla is spotted with purple and gold, and some of these spots are arranged in lines along a ridge, so as to lead directly to the nectar within. Prominent veins are apparent, and they range from 6 to 12 inches in length, with an equally long stem. A sunny exposur… Catalpa bignonioides, commonly called Southern catalpa, is a medium-sized, deciduous tree that typically grows to 30-40’ (less frequently to 60’) tall with an irregular, broad-rounded crown. Southern Catalpa is a powerful bloomer with a unique contorted form. It is a fast growing tree which prefers moist, well drained, alkaline soil, but can tolerate a range of soil types (this is why it could be, to some, considered a weedy plant). [4], "NatureServe Explorer 2.0 - Catalpa bignonioides, Southern Catalpa", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catalpa_bignonioides&oldid=982382603, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bark: Light brown tinged with red. Catalpa Trees: Comments, Reference, Facts, Info. A full grown Chinese catalpa, down near the Stone Arch Bridge in SE Minneapolis From scale fish to catfish. While the information is prepared with Indiana and other gardeners in the Midwestern U.S. in mind, much is applicable to gardeners around the globe. The only food supply for the Catalpa worm/caterpillar is the leaves of the Catalpa tree. When caterpillars are numerous, infested trees may be completely defoliated. Because of the shape of the leaves, the Southern Catalpa was used for heart illnesses by Native American medicine men. It is found in USDA Zones 4-8, whereas the southern catalpa prefers Zones 5-9. However, it can flourish in the North as well, and accordingly its original range is somewhat in doubt. Catalpa is deciduous tree that belongs to the Bignonia family. Catalpa, Southern (Catalpa bignonioides) A: M: M: Will grow in just about any soil. It can reach heights of 70’ tall and 40’ wide: its height along with its brittle wood makes it subject to wind and ice damage. Severe defoliation over several consecutive years can cause death of trees. It can be made into a tea that is an antidote for snake bites and has also used for a laxative. Each flower has its own stamens and its own stigma but the lobes of the stigma remain closed until after the anthers have opened and discharged their pollen; after they have withered and become effete then the stigma opens and invites the wandering bee. A tree of great character.Southern Catalpa is hardy in zones 5 to 9. This coarse, large leaved tree spreads 50 feet and tolerates hot, dry weather, but leaves may scorch and some drop from the tree in very dry summers. [6] The purple-leaved hybrid Catalpa × erubescens 'Purpurea' syn. The leaves get huge, as big as or bigger than a tobacco leaf. Leaves: Opposite, or in threes, simple, six to ten inches long, four to five broad. Southern Catalpa is planted as an ornamental tree and is sometimes included in urban landscaped lawns for shade and for its showy spring flowers. Winter buds: No terminal bud, uppermost bud is axillary. Then, too, the flowers refuse to be self-fertilized. The tree itself grows extremely fast and tall. Its value in this respect has long been recognized and it holds an assured place in the parks and gardens of all temperate countries. are tough. The leaves are cordate and the flowers are white. The leaf shape of the catalpa’s foliage bears a great likeness to elephant ears or large hearts. The catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) is not native to Iowa. Minute, globular, deep in the bark. There are three common catalpa species—two North American and … Corolla: Campanulate, tube swollen, slightly oblique, two-lipped, five-lobed, the two lobes above smaller than the three below, imbricate in bud; limb spreading, undulate, when fully expanded is an inch and a half wide and nearly two inches long, white, marked on the inner surface with two rows of yellow blotches and in the throat on the lower lobes with purple spots. The flower is perfect, possessing both stamens and pistils; nevertheless, the law of elimination is at work and of the five stamens that are expected to be found, three have aborted, ceased to bear anthers and have become filaments simply. The Southern Catalpa is a perennial deciduous tree that blooms from May to June. This site is a service of the Consumer Horticulture Program at Purdue University. Their leaves may be shaped like delicate hearts and their showy, white blossoms reminiscent of dainty bells, but make no mistake: Catalpa trees (Catalpa spp.) The Southern Catalpa is a smaller tree with considerably more blossoms that are lavender or purple in color, probably more attractive than its northern cousin. Catalpa also has several medicinal uses. A single flower when fully expanded is two inches long and an inch and a half wide. Actually Used As Fish Bait Both trees are fish favorites. This distinctive fruit hangs on the trees all winter. Branchlets forking regularly by pairs, at first green, shaded with purple and slightly hairy, later gray or yellowish brown, finally reddish brown. [8], It prefers moist soil and full sun. It is a larger and narrower tree than the southern catalpa and its pods are longer and stouter. They originate from temperate parts of North America, Caribbean region and eastern Asia. Young catalpa trees are beautiful green standouts with giant green leaves that can sometimes be confused with tung trees and royal paulownia in the southern U.S. Catalpa seedlings are somewhat available, but you may have to go out of your region to find the tree. Yellow leaves of 'Aurea' are showiest in the Upper South. The tree is fairly free from fungal diseases and has few insect enemies.[4]. It is native to a relatively small area extending from central Mississippi, Alabama and … ), is a dense globe form usually grafted high on Catalpa bignonioides; it grows about 6 feet high, 5 feet wide, and never blooms. Commonly called the Catawba or Indian Bean Tree, this southern US native is an occasional escape from cultivation. The wood is very light and resistant to rotting, which is why it was used a lot for fence posts and railroad ties until metal took over. The flowers of Catalpa trees have white petals and spots of yellow with purple dots. The cross was done by a Russian in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Purpurea has dark purple new growth that later turns green. Catawba's USDA hardiness zones are 5 through 9A, and ​it grows from coast to coast. The Southern catalpa's leaves are heart-shaped and broad, with a lighter green on the underside. Feather-veined, midrib and primary veins prominent. [4] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit,[3] as has the gold-leafed variety C. bignonioides 'Aurea'. During the fall season the seed pods of the Catalpa tree hang from the tree with the appearance of brown, one foot long cigars. Flowers: June, July. Southern catalpa leaves give of a foul odor when crushed while leaves of the Northern catalpa smell more like normal green vegetation. Catalpa is also known to be a mild narcotic, which is used in curing the “whooping cough. The bright green leaves appear late and as they are full grown before the flower clusters open, add much to the beauty of the blossoming tree. And the strong wood is used for fence posts and making furniture. They begin to drop early during dry weather in late summer. Contains. The Southern Catalpa tree (Catalpa bignonioides) is a native American tree that is also known as the Indian Bean, Bean Tree, Fish Bait, Catawba and the Cigar Tree. Broadly ovate, cordate at base, entire, sometimes wavy, acute or acuminate. It can be made into a tea that is an antidote for snake bites and has also used for a laxative. Southern Catalpa has many interesting features and uses. The roots are fibrous and branches are brittle, its juices are watery and bitter tasting. These cover the tree so thickly as almost to conceal the full grown leaves. [4], The leaves are large and heart shaped, being 20–30 cm long and 15–20 cm broad. [4], Despite its southern origins, it has been able to grow almost anywhere in the United States and southernmost Canada, and has become widely naturalized outside its restricted native range. The Southern Catalpa is botanically called Catalpa bignonioides. The only drawback is that its leaves smell acrid when crushed, and the flowers are short-lived. Chestnut, Chinese (Castanea mollissima) NE , SE: M: L: Prefers full sun and reasonably well-drained soil. For one thing, it's strong, extensive root system can prevent soil erosion. Catalpa bignonioides is the preferred landscape tree. Northern catalpa is slightly larger and has bigger leaves, flowers and fruit. Stamens: Two, rarely four, inserted near the base of the corolla, introrse, slightly exserted; anthers oblong, two-celled, opening longitudinally; filaments flattened, thread-like. The catalpa blooms with a heavy load of flowers in the spring followed by a large number of leaves in the fall. I don't know if the catalpa in these photos is a southern catalpa (Catalpa bigenoides) or a northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa). Fishing enthusiasts prize the caterpillars as bait, particularly for catfish, and may freeze them for months after collecting them in the spring.[10]. Catulpa Tree similar references: The Southern Catalpa Tree, umbrella catalpa tree, indiana catalpa tree, western catalpa tree, catalpa speciosa tree.
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